Chronic periodontits: An interaction between Porphyromonas gingivalis and Dendritic cells
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Periodontitis is a bacterial biofilm mediated inflammatory disease. It is characterized by inflammation of the gingivus, gingival recession, periodontal pockets, loss of connective tissue and loss of the underlying bone. This can ultimately lead to loss of teeth. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a gram-negative anaerobic rod, contributes significantly to chronic periodontitis (CP) by inducing pathogenic changes in oral biofilm composition. Several virulence factors, like gingipains (cystein proteinases), contribute to this process. In CP, neutrophils, complement, B cells, T cells and dendritic cells are involved in immunopathogenesis. Dendritic cells connect the innate immune system with the adaptive immune system. Specific dendritic cell subsets, both Langerhans cells and dermal dendritic cells, occur frequently in the oral cavity. Furthermore, an increase in mature dendritic cells is noticed in CP patients compared to HC. This indicates that both P. gingivalis and dendritic cells are involved in CP. This review focusses on the interaction between dendritic cells and P. gingivalis in CP, by lipopolysaccharide, fimbriae and capsule, which ultimately leads to the features of CP. Insights into the host-microbe interactions, contributes to development of targeted treatments of CP.