The diagnostic of gastrointestinal nematodes and coccidiosis in llamas from intensive and extensive agriculture systems in different areas of Argentina
Erp, M.L. van
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There are four species of South American Camelids (SACs): the domestic alpaca (Lama pacos), the domestic llama (Lama glama), the wild vicuña (Lama vicugno) and the wild guanaco (Lama guanicoe). The social and economic importance of the SACs in the population of the high Andes is mainly due to the climatic and high altitudes limitations. The anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract of the llama is different from that of ruminants. The forestomach of llamas is comprised of three compartments, called C1, C2 and C3. Gastrointestinal nematodes are the most numerous and most detrimental of the llama parasites. The most important are: Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia ostertagia, Trichostrongylus and Lamanema chavezi. Eimeria spp. is the most important pathogenic protozoa of the llamas. To treat the llamas against gastrointestinal nematods and coccidiosis, antihelmintic and anticoccidial treatment can be used, management changes are even or more important. The aim of this study was to learn more about gastrointestinal nematode and coccidian in the llamas in intensive and extensive agriculture systems in different regions in Argentina. The provinces sampled were: Jujuy, Buenos Aires and Entre Ríos. Those regions have different climatic measurements. In two farms, the llamas are kept under intensive agriculture systems and in five farms the llamas are kept under extensive agriculture systems. Individual faecal samples were taken directly from the rectum of the llamas and processed by the parasitological techniques; faecal eggs count, faecal oocyst count, coproculture and flotation Willis. The farms in Castelar, Villaguay, La Plata, Carlos Keen and Cieneguillas were positive for gastrointestinal nematodes, eggs per gram ranged from 20 to 1800. The genera identified were Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomun, Nematodirus lamae and cestode. All the farms were positive for coccidian. The gene identified was Eimeria lamae. There is no significant difference between intensive and extensive agriculture systems in Eggs Per Gram (EPG). The Oocysts Per Gram (OPG) in the intensive agriculture is significantly higher than the OPG in the extensive agriculture. The EPG from the province of Entre Rios (Villaguay) and the provencie of Buenos Aires (Castelar, Carlos Keen and La Plata) have significant more eggs than the province of Jujuy (Pucara de Tilcara, Cieneguillas and Santa Catalina). The province of Entre Rios and the province of Buenos Aires have a lot of rain and a low altitude. There is no significant difference in OPG in the four regions.