The influence of a dexmedetomidine - buprenorphine based anesthesia on the blood glucose of fasted dogs measured with blood glucose meters GlucoMen® GM meter (Arkray) and Xpress® meter (Nova biomedical).
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Background Several factors influence the blood glucose level perioperative in an animal: anesthesia, additional medication, pre-operative stress (due to the rise of cortisol), fluid therapy, hypoxemia, temperature and underlying diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus (DM). In mice, inescapable electro-foot-shock stress induced a 30% rise in blood glucose levels (S. Amir, 1982). Medetomidine causes mild but significant hyperglycemia when measured with EDTA blood of dogs (Ambrisko, 2005). Buprenorphine administrated intravenously may variably affect insulin and glucagon secretion and therefore blood glucose levels (Werther, 1984). Another important factor is the method used for blood glucose validation. Working hypotheses Due to a premedication of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine a significant increase of blood glucose is to be expected in fasted dogs measured with blood glucose meters (GlucoMen® GM meter and Xpress meter®). Because of pre-operative stress, an increase in blood glucose level before premedication is also to be expected. Method Venous blood was collected from 55 dogs, before and after premedication with dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg IV) and buprenorphine (10 µg/kg IV or IM). 52 dogs received induction and 49 dogs received maintenance with isoflurane as well. From each dog, four blood samples were analyzed with a twenty minutes interval and measured with a GlucoMen GM® meter (Arkray) and an Xpress® meter (Nova biomedical). Results The mean blood glucose before the premedication (T=0) was calculated for both meters. GlucoMen GM® meter: 3.5+/- 0.58 mmol/L and Xpress® meter: 4,2 +/- 0,51 mmol/L. There was for both meters a significant increase in blood glucose level after 60 minutes. Q-Q plots showed a log normality of the glucose concentration in time. Conclusions A significant increase in blood glucose 60 minutes after premedication with dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine is shown. The increase measured with the GlucoMen® meter remained within the reference values. There was a high individual variance in the population. Despite, a normal log distribution is seen. Acknowledgement The author thanks A. Menarini for providing the glucose meters and supplies.