Effect of Intrauterine Dextrose Therapy on Clinical Recovery and Uterine Status in Lactating Dairy Cows with Clinical Endometritis
Haan, M. de
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Abstract Post-partum uterine diseases such as clinical metritis and endometritis are common disorders of lactating dairy cows that diminish reproductive performance, thus diminishing profitability and sustainability of dairy operations. The objectives of the study were: 1) to assess the amount of fluid present in cows diagnosed with metritis at 7±3 DIM (experiment I) and 2) to assess the response (clinical cure 14 days post-therapy) of lactating dairy cows diagnosed with CE and treated with an intrauterine infusion of a hypertonic solution of 50% dextrose (DEX) as compared to untreated control cows (CON) (experiment II). A total of 228 Holstein cows from 1 commercial dairy operation were used in this observational study. The prevalence of clinical metritis was 20%. The presence of uterine fluid was confirmed in cows with and without clinical metritis via transrectal ultrasonography (experiment I). Only 2 cows (out of 14) diagnosed with clinical metritis presented extended uterus. Using a tubing line, the amount of fluid was attempted to measure by emptying the uterus, but due to the presence of necrotic tissue-debris, small amount of fluid was recovered. Lactating dairy cows (n=158, experiment II) were screened for CE at 26±3 DIM using vaginoscopy technique (experiment II). The incidence of CE was 16.4% at Exam 1 (26±3 DIM). Cows with CE were stratified by parity (primiparous and multiparous) and randomly allocated in 1of 2 treatment groups: 1) Intrauterine infusion (~200 mL) of a 50% dextrose solution (DEX; n=10) or 2) Untreated control cows (CON; n=12). Fourteen days post-therapy (at 40±3 DIM), treated and control cows (DEX: n=10, CON: n=12) were re-examined to assess treatment responses. Cervix diameter was measured via transrectal ultrasonography at Exam 1 (26±3 DIM) and at Exam 2 (40±3 DIM). Cows that received DEX, had an increased proportion (66%) of reduced mean cervical diameter (<4 cm) and increased proportion of clinical cure (44.7%) compared to CON cows (P=0.12). The proportion (%) of cycling lactating dairy cows based on serum concentrations of progesterone (P4) and presence of ovarian structures were reported. The proportion (%) of ovarian structures (presence or absence of follicles, CL, or cysts) was recorded at exam 1 (26±3 DIM) and at exam 2 (40+3 DIM) in lactating dairy cows with CE. There was no significant difference between the DEX and CON cows at Exams 1 and 2. Based on these findings further research is needed on the use of dextrose alone or as an adjunct of antimicrobial therapy under different herd managements.