The Transition Towards Electric Vehicles
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In this study, the state of the transition towards electric vehicles in the Netherlands was assessed. It was shown that however electric vehicles are more expensive to buy, the total cost of ownership of an electric vehicle is competitive for 20% of the consumers. This number is expected to increase in the future, since battery prices will decrease, and the cost of gasoline and diesel will increase. This results in a competitive TCO for the average consumer in between 2014 and 2018. Secondly, it was found the range of an average EV is 75% less compared to a conventional vehicle. The range however is expected to increase with 80% in 2020, due improved battery technology and decreased battery prices. It is hard to determine the minimal range consumers require, due to a difference in perception between what consumers think they need, and what they actually require. Therefore it is hard to predict at what point consumer will experience the range of an electric vehicle to be sufficient, however the outlook of an increased action radius will certainly contribute to that feeling. The charging infrastructure in the Netherlands seems currently sufficient, with one charger for every two electric vehicles. However, it was found that further increase of this charging network is biggest hurdle to take. The profitability of slow chargers is problematic due to a high level of rules and regulations, a lack of leadership, different point of interest and no consensus among stakeholders. Continuing this current path will withhold further development of the slow charge network, and can have disastrous consequences to the transition as a whole.