An environmental and economic impact comparison of renovation concepts for Dutch residential buildings
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In order to reduce the annual Dutch greenhouse gas emissions much can be gained by reducing the primary energy use of the Dutch residential building stock. The current average energy consumption of Dutch dwellings makes it difficult for the Dutch government to meet (inter) national agreements. A solution to this issue can be the renewal or renovation of the Dutch residential building stock. Since there are considerable more existing dwellings than newly built dwellings, and approximately 75% of the current Dutch residential building stock will still exist in 2050, this study focuses on renovation rather than renewal. To show the differences between current policies and high ambition potential, a distinction is made between a low ambition renovation concept (inline with current policies) and high ambition renovation concepts. Based on the ambition levels three renovation concepts, named low ambition renovation concept, high ambition renovation concept and high ambition rebuilding concept, were defined. The three renovation concepts are compared with one another and with the current situation, and are evaluated on the four key performance indicators shadow cost, GHG-emissions, mineral resource depletion and net present cost. The key performance indicators are based on Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing methods. The overall conclusion of this study is that there is no single best solution in order to reduce the greenhouse emissions of the Dutch residential building stock. Because the best renovation solution depends on the stakeholders’ environmental and economic point of view, desired lifetime extension, the current dwellings quality and the willingness of the inhabitants. From an environmental point of view a dwelling should always be renovated, with a preference for high ambition renovation. When the economic and cost-efficient greenhouse gas mitigation is more important, low ambition renovation is the best option. In this study mainly the technical part of dwelling renovation is addressed. To implement dwelling renovation on a large scale in the Dutch residential building stock, social aspects of renovation also play an important role and need to be investigated. In order to achieve that the high ambition renovation concept is not solely interesting from and environmental point of view, as well as from an economic point of view, possible economic improvements on the cost of the renovation concept require further investigation.