Towards Climate Neutral Cities! Analysis and assessment of the extent to which municipalities use an integrated approach for creating climate neutral cities
Lavieren, D. van
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A climate neutral city is an emerging concept and not much have been written about climate neutral cities and how one should organize this in theory. Although many theories are available on different roles for the state, market and civil society and about what type of approaches are available. But most do not deal with climate neutral cities. Those that do address climate neutral cities often address that it should be organized through an integrated approach. In the Netherlands more cities have declared that they want to become climate neutral. That will most likely not be realized before 2040. In this research an analytical framework is developed containing objects for integration, like common understanding, commitment, goals, instruments/tools, participation and leadership. This analytical framework is used in order to answer the research objective of this research, which is to yield descriptive, explanatory, evaluative and prescriptive knowledge to understand which factors contribute to developing an integrated approach, to understand to which extent an integrated approach is used for creating climate neutral cities and to give insights in the implementation process by analyzing/assessing/using the approaches of leading Dutch municipalities. This research combines theoretical knowledge with practical knowledge gained form case studies in the Netherlands, namely the municipalities of Tilburg and Rotterdam, who have declared to be one of the frontrunners in the Netherlands. Both the municipality as whole as a specific project within the city will be used for analyses. In Tilburg this is the ‘Klimaatschap’ and for Rotterdam project Heijplaat. Both Tilburg and Rotterdam, show a great extent of policy integration. Regarding the extent to which an integrated approach is being implemented, the case studies vary slightly. Tilburg is showing features of an interactive and a self-governing mode and Rotterdam mostly the features of a interactive governance mode. But both case studies were quite able to implement an integrated approach. Some of the main factors/conditions found in this research are: that a good monitoring system is required; that a network should exist, consisting many actors with similar interests; the presence of a ‘core team’, or catalyst; having equal roles and power; and the ability for the municipality to adapt its role to the needs of specific situations.