Effect of food components on colon cancer through microbial transformation in the colon
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Because the mortaility rates for colorectal cancer are high, it is of importance that research is done so that risks can be reduced. A major risk factor involved in the development of colon cancer is the composition of the diet. Various strains of bacteria can act tumor promoting or can act against the risk of developing cancer. A close interaction exists between food substances and the microbiota, as the microbiota can be modulated by food compounds and microbiotic enzymes can convert food compounds into other substances. Carbohydrates can be fermented to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which act preventive, while proteolytic fermentation can lead to an increase in toxic substances that can act on the progression of colorectal cancer. In future, research can be further focused on mechanisms behind these phenomena.