Knowledge development in the Zero Emission Vehicle industry
Hoof, S. van
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This study researches the dynamics in knowledge development, knowledge distribution and knowledge transfer patterns among different types of organizations in the battery electric vehicle (BEV) industry and the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) industry during the period 1990-2010. Using patent citation data, license data and component supply contract data we conclude that entry in the FCV industry becomes increasingly difficult in time, while entry and obtaining a first-mover advantage in the BEV industry might still be possible. Furthermore we see that small incumbents and outsiders are catching up in terms of knowledge development in the BEV industry because large incumbents have fallen behind in BEV knowledge development, as they placed their bet on FCV knowledge development. Furthermore, we see a shift to more open models of innovation in the BEV industry. We also found that acquiring licenses and buying components is not straightforward and in many cases depends on agreements for bilateral knowledge transfers. In addition, it seems that licenses are strategically used by incumbent firms.