Internaat of Externaat Maatschappelijke, Onderwijskundige en Pedagogische Opvattingen over de Keuze tussen Internaat en/of Externaat binnen het Nederlandse Dovenonderwijs in de periode 1955-1965.
Haan, M.H. de
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Aim: This study focused on two of the twentieth century's Dutch institutions for the deaf and attempted to discover their underlying motives and thoughts, when they were deciding between boarding schools or foster homes for their students. Therefore, the research question is: ‘Which underlying thoughts were present for these Dutch institutions in their decision between boarding schools and foster homes?’ Methods: Data was collected from various magazines for the deaf and the year journals of the Guyot institute in Groningen (1790) and the Institute for the Deaf (IvD) in St. Michielsgestel (1840) from the period 1955-1965. The study conducted a Grounded Theory analysis on these data, with the use of coding to decipher the relevant topics in the data. Results: Integration into society was considered important by both institutes. Foster homes were considered useful by the Guyot institute for developing speech and to not estrange the deaf from the society. Hearing devices and technological development stimulated speech development. Foster homes were also used because a family-environment would be beneficial to the child's independence. The IvD did not switch to the use of foster homes and remained a boarding school. Children were allowed to be picked up from school later. The latter institute considered the transfer of Catholic beliefs to be as important as educational development, and intertwined the two. Conclusion: The Guyot institute used foster homes, because it mainly found it useful in the development of speech for the deaf. Even though both institutes supported speech development, the IvD remained a boarding school. Presumably, because religion and education were intertwined there, but this is not confirmed.