El Elefante Blanco en la Zona Negra: La noción del desarrollo y de la comunicación intercultural en proyectos de cambios sociales. Un estudio cualtitativo sobre el papel de la comunicación intercultural de desarrollo en los proyectos de cambio social en la comunidades afroecuatorianas en Esmeraldas, Ecuador
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This thesis reconsiders notions of development and development-communication related to the specific political, social and cultural context of the black and afro -Ecuadorian communities in the province of Esmeraldas, within the Republic of Ecuador. The cases studied bear on the role of communication within the implication of projects for social changes. The data obtained result from research in cooperation with four local ONG´s: FONMSOEAM, APROCA, CEFODI and ASONE. Upon cooperation was decided to be able to reach the small scale producers of cacao in the cantons of Atacames and Muisne and in the cities of Esmeraldas, Rioverde and Quinindé as well as migrated youth in the city of Quito. The cultural context refers to the cultural identity of the Afro-Ecuadorians and the esmeraldeños, which can be defined through the presence of the black race, their traditions and ancestral habits. Furthermore, the identity has been formed by a rough history and their contemporary consequences in the social context of discrimination, marginalization and mass migrations to the big cities of Ecuador. The political context characterizes itself by disinterest from the provincial, national and international governments. Furthermore ongoing disputes between the provincial and national government as well as indirect and unsuccessful labors coming from the Ivory Tower of the president influence the political context op the province. The terminology of development, within this specific context, can be defined as a process as well as a progress with economical and social ends in the form of more educational and health services. Nevertheless, the development of the infrastructure in the province is unmistakable for its necessity to comply with the basic living conditions of the farmers in Esmeraldas. The development communication in Esmeraldas counters to focus on motivation, dialogue and the stimulation of group participation. This is done with the goal to reach a stable and strong organization using the strategies of participative communication and the communication for a social change. This way, the communication tends to lift up the level of trust and loyalty of the target group, while informing about their rights and environmental protection. The main communication tools to use are workshops, educational projects and formal as well as informal meetings. Nevertheless, the road conditions in Esmeraldas, the isolation of the farmers and the difficulty in transferring messages, in combination with the absence of feed-back from the target group, complicates the communication in a severe manner. In conclusion, to be able to reach a higher level of development, a stronger organization of the local population and the stimulation of trust and loyalty amongst the population of Esmeraldas are necessary factors.