|dc.description.abstract||Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of integrated identity on social fobia, school anxiety, substance use and delinquency, on a large group of adolescents in school throughout the Netherlands. Also the influence of three moderators, sex, age and cultural background is examined.
Method: Participants were 1805 adolescents (848 boys and 951 girls between the ages of 11 and 18 years old) from high school classes HAVO, VWO, HAVO/VWO and gymnasium level, who completed a survey. The survey measured different anxiety types (SCARED), integrated identity, moral identity, cultural background, substance use and delinquency. A regression is conducted to analyze the research questions.
Results: All four dependent variables are related to integrated identity. Both sex and age have a main effect on social fobia (girls and the youngest age category showing the highest level of social anxiety). There also appears a main effect of sex on school anxiety (boys show more school anxiety). Furthermore, an interaction-effect of horizontal integration of identity and sex on school anxiety has been shown (stronger for girls). When sex is separated in the analysis, we only found an interaction-effect of horizontal integration and age with boys on school anxiety (stronger for boys with a modal age). There is also an interaction effect of integrated identity and cultural background on substance use (stronger for adolescents with one or two foreign parents). Sex only influences substance use for adolescents with Dutch parents. Finally a main effect of sex on delinquency (boys score higher) and an interaction effect of integrated identity and cultural background on delinquency (stronger for girls) have come forward.
Conclusion: Noteworthy is the fact that literature on school anxiety is not in accord with the found results. In this research boys tend to show a higher level of school anxiety. For adolescents with one or two parents from a foreign country, there is a stronger relationship between substance use/delinquency and integrated identity. Therefore it is interesting to look at which specific cultural background influences this relationship.||