|dc.description.abstract||This research applied qualitative research methods to investigate water sector stakeholder’s awareness of worsening water quality, due to agricultural practices in rice cultivation. When pollution of water is perceived as a problem this could be reduced by investing in sustainability initiatives at the source, e.g. rice farmers. This research therefore also studies the preparedness to contribute to initiatives towards sustainability. This awareness and preparedness is studies by interviewing stakeholders to the Thai water sector and validated by interviews with a control group existing out of international organizations, universities and independent researchers who are professionals in the field of agro-commodity supply chains, sustainability or Thai development.
The extent of awareness among the Thai water sector and the extent of preparedness to contribute to sustainability lead up to the likability of successful implementation of an incentive mechanism. The incentive mechanism discussed in this study is one based on the concept of Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES). PES is a market-based approach to increase sustainability in (Thai) waters, by improving agricultural practices in (rice) cultivation. Thai farmers, through such scheme, are incentivized for the implementation of better agricultural practices, such as reduced agro-chemicals application. The success of the suggested incentive mechanism, the Book & Claim model, one with low-cost and high flexibility, will be studied through analyzing the characteristics of the model (low traceability and transparency) in combination with the research results about the water sector’s awareness and preparedness and the political and social circumstances affecting the rice supply chain. It will conclude the government to be a valuable partner for further collaboration while other political objectives are resolved and general awareness and preparedness to contribute grows. The Book & Claim incentive mechanism will hold potential, while other factors such as lack of knowledge about the magnitude and causality between rice and water have to be overcome first.
Further research is needed in the extent of water pollution through rice cultivation and the potential of other (external) stakeholder to the rice supply chain to invest in the Book & Claim incentive mechanism to improve sustainability in the Thai rice-water nexus.||
|dc.subject.keywords||Thailand, Rice, Book & Claim, Incentive Mechanism, Payment, Ecosystem, Services, Water, Sustainability, Sustainable Rice Platform, PES, UTZ Certified, Rice-Water Nexus, Bangkok, Awareness, Preparedness, Pollution, fertilisers, Pesticides, chemicals, farming, Pledging scheme, populism, Stakeholders, supply chain, treceability, transparency, agriculture, incentivised, Payments for Environmental Services, initiatives, quality||