Participation of Private Initiative Organizations in Conducting Civic Integration Act (Wet Inburgering)
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This study investigates the participation of private initiative organization in conducting Dutch Civic Integration Act. The study was motivated by the fact that the Dutch government assigns immense accountability to the integration subject for participating in the civic integration course. This responsibility assignment gives an opportunity for private organizations – for profit and non-profit – to perform the civic integration affairs. Moreover, in implementing its ‘activation policy’, the state demands institutions and its social partners to give the space to citizens for their own initiative that will contribute to emancipation and social reintegration (VROM, 2007). Different roles that are performed by private initiative organizations could substitute or complement the state function in conducting the Civic Integration Act. This thesis studies the role and participation of non-profit organizations in the realm of civic integration; to what extent they participate. It also investigates whether their participation works effective in promoting active citizenship. Desk research, survey method, and case studies in four municipalities in the Netherlands (Amersfoort, Delfzijl, Rotterdam, and Utrecht) are performed. Based on a data study on 151 municipalities it is found that the role of private initiative organizations as external operating organizations for civic integration is mainly apparent when the number of ethnic minorities in a certain municipality is medium. Further, 11 qualitative, in-depth interviews that were performed with representatives from municipalities, private initiative organizations, and language course providers show that private initiative organizations are beneficial in contributing executive, support, sustainability, and encounter role in the civic integration realm. These roles hold up the active-participation policy that is endorsed by municipalities. Degree of participation from a private initiative organization in a municipality depends much on what kind of civic integration regulation that is performed in that particular municipality (self-regulated or outsourced). At the local level, municipality and private initiative organizations are complementing each other in promoting citizen’s active participation through civic integration program. Private initiative organizations acquire resources, expertise, and experience in assisting the completion of civic integration program for municipality, yet they can hardly operate without sufficient (financial) support from the government. On the other hand, Civic Integration Act could not take place comprehensively without participation from private initiative organizations.