Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): effect van instructies op de verwerking van nare herinneringen
Es, A. van
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Based on previous research by Lee and Drummond (2007), this research has examined the influence of the type of therapist instructions (reliving and distancing) on the processing of distressing memories. Furthermore, this research examined whether the type of the trauma also influences the way the memory is being processed. The research has been conducted by and among university students. A detailed protocol – based on the original Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR; Shapiro, 1989) protocol – was used. Participants (13 males and 23 females, mean age 22.4 year) were asked to recall a distressing memory, after which the content of the memory was desensitized by either reliving or distancing instructions. Results show no difference in effectiveness between reliving and distancing conditions. Furthermore, no differences were found between the conditions powerlessness and guilt/shame. Partly based on the used measures it can be concluded that the manipulation of the conditions failed. For future research it is recommended that the protocol be expanded and the conditions of the type of trauma be adjusted. Furthermore it is recommended to add a control condition to the research, in order to determine whether bilateral stimuli are effective and whether they influence the effectiveness of therapist instructions.